The rates for the three financial years from 1 April 2021 are as follows:
|Year beginning 1 April:||2021||2022||2023|
|Corporate Tax main rate||19%||19%||25%|
|Corporate Tax small profits rate||N/A||N/A||19%|
|Marginal relief lower profit limit||N/A||N/A||£50,000|
|Marginal relief upper profit limit||N/A||N/A||£250,000|
From 1 April 2023, the Corporation Tax main rate applies to profits over £250,000, and the small profits rate applies to profits of up to £50,000. Those thresholds are divided by the number of associated companies carrying on a trade or business for all or part of the accounting period. Companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000 pay tax at the main rate reduced by a marginal relief determined by the standard fraction and this formula:
F = standard fraction
U = upper limit
A = amount of the augmented profits
N =amount of the taxable total profits
For companies with ring fence profits from oil or gas related activities, the main rate is 30%, and the small profits rate is 19%, with a ring fence fraction of 11/400, for all financial years from 2008.
Research and Development (R&D)
Small and medium (SME) companies can claim enhanced deductions for expenditure on R&D projects at 186% (230% before April 2023) of qualifying expenditure. Where the deduction is claimed and the company makes a loss, it can claim a cash credit from HMRC of 10% of that loss from 1 April 2023, previously 14.5%. Where the SME spends at least 40% of their total expenditure on qualifying R&D from 1 April 2023, it can claim the higher payable tax credit of 14.5%.
Each R&D project must be carried on in a field of science or technology and be undertaken with an aim of extending knowledge in a field of science or technology.
Research and Development Expenditure Credit (RDEC) scheme
Large companies can claim an extra 20% deduction from 1 April 2023 on the following qualifying expenditure:
- Staffing costs
- Expenditure on externally provided workers
- Software and materials consumed or transformed
- Utilities but not rent
- Payments to clinical volunteers
- Subcontractors of qualifying bodies and individuals/partnerships
RDEC differs from the previous R&D scheme for large companies as it is an 'above the line' tax credit and can be accounted for in the profit/loss statement.